By et al S. H. Lin (Editor)
Between others, chemistry, physics, biology, and fabric sciences have obvious a swift development in either experimental and theoretical experiences of multi-photon tactics and spectroscopy of atoms, ions and molecules. This publication is a crucial addition to a sophisticated sequence that comprises overview papers readable not just by means of energetic researchers in those components, but in addition by way of people who are desiring to input the sector. Written by means of specialists within the quarter, the stories are self-contained to permit readers to understand the main strategies with no a lot instruction. This quantity could be worthwhile to lively researchers in addition to to scientists in biology, chemistry, fabric sciences, and physics.
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As an example, the photoionization formula for N2 molecules is reported. In Sec. 4, we compare Keldysh’s or other photoionization rates with our new results numerically and discuss the validity of our formulas. For the atomic case, we focus on 1s state of hydrogen atom as the initial state. For the molecular case, our attention is directed to the photoionization pathway to remove σg 2p electron of N2 molecule and to 17−19 produce N2 + in its ground electronic state X 2 + g. 2. Theory-atomic case In this sub-section, we concentrate on the photoionization of hydrogen-like atoms.
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31). 31 As mentioned in Fig. 2, we can estimate the ionization rate as a function of laser intensity and ionization potential, which is demonstrated in Fig. 3 with various ionization potentials I0 . From Figs. 2 and 3, we can see that the photoionization rate increases very rapidly with decreasing ionization potential in the whole range of the laser intensity. This is due to the fact that under the condition of the same laser intensity, the potential barrier height and width are smaller for the system with smaller ionization potential.
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