By Enrico G. Beltrametti, Jean-Marc Lévy-Leblond
Creation; E. Beltrametti, J.M. LévyLeblond.GeneralReviews: Experiments with unmarried Atoms in Cavities and Traps; H.Walther. Experiments with unmarried Atoms, Molecules, or Photons; S.Haroche. Quantum results with Ultracold Atoms; Y. Castin, et al. move of unmarried Electrons and unmarried Cooper Pairs in steel Nanostructures; M.H. Devoret, et al. Interferometry with debris of Nonzero relaxation Mass: Topological Experiments; G.L. Opat. Achievements in Neutron Interferometry; H. Rauch. Electron Interferometry and Holography; A. Tonomura. Quantum Phenomena and Their purposes in Semiconductor Microstructures; F. Capasso.Specific Topics: Quantum Fluctuations and Superconductivity; R. Fazio, A. Tagliacozzo. Spontaneous Localization and Superconductivity; A. Rimini. Photon-Photon Correlations from unmarried Atoms; M.O. Scully. Einstein Causality in Interatom Microcavity-confined Transverse Quantum Correlations; F. De Martini, M. Giangrasso. 3 reviews at the Aharonov-Bohm impact; M. Berry. protecting Measurements; Y. Aharonov,L. Vaidman. vulnerable Measurements; L. Vaidman. eight extra articles. Index.
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12c and 12d show structures consisting of three shells plus string, and four shells, respectively. We have been able to observe all possible structures, from the string up to four shells plus string. 47 COMPARISON WITH THEORY Fig. 13a gives a summary of experimental data for all recorded images in which the ions were individually resolved. The depth of 1/;0 of the potential well and the ion density per unit length are the experimental parameters. The theoretical boundaries between the different shell structures, predicted in Ref 45 in terms of the functional dependence of A on 1/;0 and the ion density, are given by the straight lines with constant A.
The general method known as Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS)33 is also very efficient to detect and manipulate single atomic particles. Instead of relying on fluorescence, it combines selective laser absorption to an upper excited level with an ionization of the atom from this upper level by the action of a static electric field or a microwave field. The resulting ion or electron is detected by an electron multiplier or a channeltron device, yielding a large pulse of current for each particle, with a near unity efficiency, The process is highly selective, different isotopes of the same element being easily separated since they absorb the laser light' at different frequency, As in fluorescence spectroscopy, very low atomic concentrations can be detected on a huge background of undetected atoms.
Mod. Opt. 39:233 (1992). 47. L. J. J. Wineland, Shell-structure phase of magnetically confined strongly coupled plasmas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60:2022 (1988). 28 EXPERIMENTS WITH SINGLE ATOMS, MOLECULES OR PHOTONS Serge Haroche Laboratoire Kastler Brossel de l'Ecole Nonnale Superieure 24 rue Lhomond, 75231, Paris Cedex OS, France INTRODUCTION. "IN VIVO" SINGLE PARTICLE EXPERIMENTS Atoms, molecules or photons have been known for a long time, but only recently has it become possible to manipulate them as single entities and to observe their behaviour directly.
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