By Yuan-Cheng Fung (auth.)
The target of this booklet is still just like that said within the first variation: to give a entire viewpoint of biomechanics from the stand element of bioengineering, body structure, and scientific technology, and to enhance mechanics via a chain of difficulties and examples. My three-volume set of Bio mechanics has been accomplished. they're entitled: Biomechanics: Mechanical homes of residing Tissues; Biodynamics: flow; and Biomechanics: movement, circulation, rigidity, and progress; and this is often the 1st quantity. The mechanics prerequisite for all 3 volumes is still on the point of my publication a primary path in Continuum Mechanics (3rd variation, Prentice-Hall, Inc. , 1993). within the decade of the Nineteen Eighties the sector of Biomechanics elevated tremen dously. New advances were made in all fronts. those who have an effect on the elemental knowing of the mechanical homes of residing tissues are defined intimately during this revision. The references are cited to date.
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Additional resources for Biomechanics: Mechanical Properties of Living Tissues
But the greatest advantage of the continuum approach is the ability to express the mechanical properties of the system by constitutive equations. This is the topic to be discussed in this chapter. While the reader is referred to standard works on continuum mechanics for a more detailed presentation, we shall outline very briefly the concepts, definitions, and notations we shall use in this work. 2 Stress If we want to determine the strength of a tendon, we can test a large or small specimen. A large specimen can sustain a large force, a smaller specimen can take only a small force.
The limiting value of L\T/L\S would have a prescribed acceptable bound of error. If a material system has a mass density and a stress vector definable in this manner, then we say that the system is a material continuum. Thus, our definition of material continuum is based on a specific lower bound of size and a set of specific accepted bounds of errors. Since the lower bound of size is a part of the definition, a different choice of the lower bound of size may result in a different continuum. For example, the whole blood may be considered as a continuum at the scale of the heart, large arteries, and large veins, but must be regarded as a two phase fluid, with plasma and blood cells as two separate phases in capillary blood vessels and arterioles and venules.
Equations (I) and (2) of Prob. 4 are known as the law of Laplace. Engineers may be surprised at the prominent role played by this law in physiology. 9 On the Law of Laplace Originally, this law states a relationship between pressure, surface tension, and the curvature of a liquid surface. Consider the surface of a liquid column in a capillary tube standing in a bath. On assuming that the surface tension is constant in every direction, the law of Laplace reads: P= T(~r1 + r2~) , (1) in which P denotes the transmural pressure acting on the surface, T is the surface tension, and r1' r2 are the principal radii of curvature of the surface.
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