# Educational Research: An Introduction (7th Edition) by Meredith D. Gall, Walter R. Borg, Joyce P. Gall

By Meredith D. Gall, Walter R. Borg, Joyce P. Gall

Academic learn: An advent, 7th version, is the main complete and largely revered examine textual content for the instruction of graduate-level scholars and students who may have to supply a dissertation or thesis. A accomplished creation to the key examine equipment and kinds of information research used this present day, this article offers in-depth assurance of all points of study, from the epistemology of clinical inquiry to analyze layout, facts assortment, research, and reporting of the finished research.

Similar introduction books

The Future of Life-Cycle Saving and Investing: The Retirement Phase

In October 2008, approximately a hundred and fifty economists, actuaries, study scientists, funding managers, and advisers met for 2 days at Boston college to research the main urgent monetary concerns dealing with the "Boomer" new release in built countries with getting older populations. The convention happened ahead of the election of Barack Obama as U.

Extra resources for Educational Research: An Introduction (7th Edition)

Example text

Create a histogram of the samples. 3. 0. e. the probability that a pixel with the corresponding colour is from the sample set). 4. e. p(i, j) = h(f (i, j))). 8 Back-projection (right image) of a (3D) HLS histogram of the skin pixels (centre image) of a colour image (left image). e. 8, in which a sample set of skin pixels is histogrammed and back-projected into an image in order to identify skin regions in the image. Note that the size of the histogram bins is particularly important when doing this back-projection, particularly if the number of samples is limited.

P(i, j) = h(f (i, j))). 8 Back-projection (right image) of a (3D) HLS histogram of the skin pixels (centre image) of a colour image (left image). e. 8, in which a sample set of skin pixels is histogrammed and back-projected into an image in order to identify skin regions in the image. Note that the size of the histogram bins is particularly important when doing this back-projection, particularly if the number of samples is limited. In this case it was found that 8 × 8 × 8 bins in the histogram was appropriate.

J . While this metric is one of the most common used within clustering, it does not take any account of cluster size and hence does not work well in situations where there are some large and some small clusters. at(row,col)[channel]; Histograms 47 // Apply k-means clustering, determining the cluster // centres and a label for each pixel. cols+col )), channel); k-means clustering is an example of unsupervised learning where the segmentation is learnt from the data presented. Unsupervised learning is learning that is done without feedback about whether the current classification is correct or not.