By Shlomo Izre'el
In the course of the moment millenium BCE, Akkadian served because the lingua franca of the traditional close to East. an in depth physique of epistolographic texts written during this language used to be found at inform el-Amarna, the fashionable identify for the traditional seat of presidency of the Egyptian Pharaoh Amenophis IV (Akhenaton). the vast majority of the Amarna letters have been despatched to Egypt by means of the rulers of Canaanite towns which, on the time, have been a part of the Egyptian empire. whereas the normal language of correspondence was once nominally Akkadian, via the Amarna interval, i.e., the 14th century BCE, the Canaanite management had built a type of combined language. This language, or really, linguistic continuum comprising many types, used to be established upon the lexicon of Akkadian, with severe structural interference from the scribes' basic languages, i.e., the spectrum of West Semitic dialects spoken in Canaan. because of this language touch, all degrees of the linguistic constitution have been affected, in particular within the domain names of syntax and morphology, making a marked similarity among this combined Canaano-Akkadian diplomatic language and the indigenous West Semitic Canaanite dialects. seeing that we don't own any sizeable written list of the Canaanite dialects ahead of the 1st millennium BCE, the Amarna letters from Canaan are our simply resource of information concerning the linguistic constitution of the dialects spoken in Canaan within the moment millenium BCE. The Amarna letters yield linguistic, sociolinguistic and linguistic-cultural fabric that predates either Phoenician and Hebrew as we all know them from the written documents of the 1st millenium BCE. The survey provided in LW/M, which sketches a concise version of the linguistic method embodied through this corpus, lays specified rigidity at the interference among Akkadian and the West Semitic languages, which led to the Canaano-Akkadian combined languages and linguistic kinds.
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Additional resources for Canaano-Akkadian
Here I guard and here I heed day and night the words of the king, my lord. May the king, my lord, take notice of his servant: There is war from the mountain against me. I built a site, Manhati is its name, to prepare for the (arrival of) the pitat-troops of the king, my lord, but, behold, Maya took it from me and put his commissioner in it. Order Re' anap, my commissioner, to return the town to me. Then I will prepare it for the pitat-troops of the king, my lord. Another matter: Take notice of the deeds of Pi' iya, Gulati's son, against Gezer, the maidservant of the king, my lord: How may days has he been plundering her!
1984. C. from Canaan and Syria. ) Kevelaer: Butzon und Bercker. Languages of the World/Materials LINCOM's Descriptive Grammar Series INDIVIDUAL LANGUAGES Biblical Hebrew Bauer, H. and Leander P. 1922. Historische Grammatik der Hebriiischen Sprache . Halle. ) Joilon, Paul. 1993. A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew. Translated and Revised by T. Muraoka. Volume 1: Part One: Orthography and Phonetics. Part Two: Morphology. Volume II: Part Three: Syntax; Paradigms and Indices. ) Rom a: Pontificio lstituto Biblico.
Pronominal subjects to verbs are focalized in CanAkk, as is the case in both its linguistic components. ' (114: 14-5; By bios) (313) l+FOC This systemic reduction is the result of contamination between the two components of 46 CanAkk: In Akkadian, ma is used only as a FOC marker, mi being a OS marker. Canaanite, on the other hand, uses mi as an EMPH marker (cf. 5). funu ana:kumi nukurtu u ana a:lisu The majority of the CanAkk scribes, however, maintain only one of these practices, in which case the particle utilized is to be regarded as an EMPH, although it may be added to focalized constituents all the same (see examples 253-4).
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