By Philip L. Walker Jr. (auth.), José L. Figueiredo, Jacob A. Moulijn (eds.)
Carbon gasification reactions shape the root of many very important commercial methods, equivalent to the combustion of coal and the produc tion of synthesis fuel, gas gases and activated carbons. also they are desirous about metallurgical strategies and within the regeneration of coked catalysts. therefore, realizing the basics of carbon gasification is of significant value for extra technological improvement. additionally, the topic is of interdisciplinary nature, related to chemistry, ma terials technological know-how and chemical engineering. accordingly, it used to be suggestion that a sophisticated research Institute will be fruitful in constructing the cutting-edge, in bringing jointly specialists from a number of the sectors concerned and in deciding on parts of required learn and commercial improvement. any such assembly used to be held at Alvor, Portugal, from the twentieth to the thirty first might 1985, and the lectures awarded the reof are amassed during this quantity. the current quantity is geared up in seven chapters. The Intro duction provides the carbon gasification reactions an~ their rele vance for specific tactics and business makes use of. within the moment bankruptcy, the buildings of carbon and coal are reviewed, including equipment of structural, chemical and textural characterization.
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Extra info for Carbon and Coal Gasification: Science and Technology
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The structure within an individual layer is far-removed from the regular hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms of the graphite layer. Major vacancies occur, together with chemisorbed hydrogen. Secondly, HTT 1500 - 1700 K, there occurs lateral growth of the individual molecules, but the extents of parallel alignment of those layers are still limited. Structure within an individual layer shows progression towards the graphite layer but gross defects still occur of multiple vacancies and the presence of hydrogen and heteroatoms.
Figure 6 illustrates the arrangement or structures of the 40 lamellar molecules within a sphere. e. coalesced but still fluid mesophase) and eventually the semi-coke (hardened mesophase) adopts a quite complex arrangement of lamellae. The structure of coalesced mesophase possesses defects which are known as "disclinations" (24, 29). These are low energy defects some of which anneal out during the transformation of coalesced bulk but fluid mesophase to the stage of semi-coke (hardened mesophase).
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